Wednesday, December 21, 2011

1.13. Budget : -

Any project depends on the systematic management of budget. Without this, no program can be gone forward. So, this institute has managed the budget in following ways in order to prove the project successful :-
Subject & Amount Category
Group A
Educative Program
Research Co-ordination
Group B
Regular Supervision
Systematic Survey
Social Mobilization
Perfect Management

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Tuesday, November 8, 2011

1.9. Program Area and Duration : -

The program area and duration of this institute are as following:-

To maintain the program area throughout the world.

To institutionalize peace and human rights in universal level as its main scope.

To determine the duration of five years for this great project.

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Monday, October 17, 2011

2.16. Level or Scale of Project Proposals : -

There may be varying levels and scales of project proposals. All this largely depends on the nature and type of project you have identified and intended to prepare proposal on. Virtually, there is not a cut off point or demarcation line to call a particular project as small or big. The " smallness and bigness" of a project largely depends upon a number of parameters like the amount of investment made on it, command area covered by it, employment generated by it, foreign currencies earned by it and so on. Therefore, it is the concern of project awarding authorities to fix certain parameters to call a project either small or medium or big one. However, keeping in mind the skills required for writing project proposals, we can plainly see the level or scale of a project from basic, advanced and more advanced standpoints.

Project Proposal Levels

Tender Proposal             Funding Proposal

More Advanced              More Advanced
Advanced                        Advanced
Basic                                Basic

It is clear that a tender or funding proposal could be either basic or advanced or more advanced in its level. But as a beginner in this field, our attempt should be to start writing project proposals from basic level and move towards the advanced and more advanced levels. On the other hand, skill required for preparing various levels of proposals may differ to a great extent.

Saturday, September 10, 2011

2.15. Types of Project Proposals : -

Depending upon different fields and natures of projects, there may be several types of project proposals. Even so, some of the proposals we usually come across can be broadly classified as is presented in the following ways. However, it should not be taken for an exhaustive classification. On the other hand,  the following ways indicate the types of the proposal writing skills of which we are starting to develop.

Types of Project Proposals

Proposal                                                     Development Work-related               Scientific Investigation                                                    
Development Work-related                         Business Enterprise Related                         Academic                                
Scientific Investigation                                 Socioeconomic Development Based             Non-academic

2.14. Proposal Writing: Science or Art : -

Proposal writing may be considered as a management science as well as an art. It is a management science in the sense that writing a project proposal essentially requires a careful and good combination of  :

Identifying and screening right project/s from different points of view;

Setting reasonable and achievable objective or objectives;

Deciding appropriate design/method for project works; and

using resources in an effective and efficient way.

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Friday, September 9, 2011

2.13. Project Proposal : Importance

A doctor examines her/his patient and prescribes medicine. Engineer draws technical map prior to starting any construction work with a view to execute the same in a per-planned way without any hurdle. Similarly, a manager or a development planner also needs to identify the appropriate projects required for her/his community or organization development and state the Whats, Whys and Hows of any development project that s/he is going to propose. From this standpoint, a development actor may be considered as a social engineer to structure the future of a community or a doctor to examine the socioeconomic illness and provide right prescriptions of development process to be undergone by a community through selecting and implementing appropriate and needy projects.

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2.12. Project Proposal : Introductory Background

A project proposal is simply a basic document having explanation of activities to be performed while undertaking an investment project. In other words, it is a written document prepared and proposed to do something in a per-planned way with a view to successfully carry out the given assignment. Generally, a project proposal  should satisfactorily answer the following questions.

2.11. Steps in Project Selection/Screening : -

Since the focus of this guidebook centers around to improve the skills in writing project proposal, the identification and selection process of a candidate project with a view to write proposal thereon is listed below in a point-wise basis rather than in details.

Recognize the types and natures of projects you have identified

Establish operational nature of your project

Do basic homework (whatever is needed )

Find out the funding agency or sources to project

Understanding the interest of funding agency

Check whether your and sponsor's interests are  matching

Prepare  and  forward  project  proposal

2.10. Sources to Projects : -

The above discussions give a broad idea about the origin of different types, nature, and scale of projects. Alternatively, we may call them as the sources of projects.
Sources to project, on the other hand, refer to those individuals or  organizations that give life to an identified project. In other words, each and every identified project, if it is to be implemented, needs the involvement of certain amount of investment (financial and non-financial) to be committed by someone else. So any person or organization taking interest to invest and manage a project may be alternatively called as project animator or project sponsor or " Sources to Projects".

2.9. Project Identification and their Sources : -

Once we get a clear understanding about the concept of projects, our next step will be to identify the potential and useful projects that could be helpful to expedite the development process. Paradoxically, projects may be lying here and there in different sectors (agriculture, health, education etc.) and in varying levels or ranging from grass roots to national levels.
Usually, project identification ideas come out from various sorts of problems those we face in our day to day life. Problems we face in our daily life may be looked from the perspectives of improving the existing situation of people, community, and organization at varying levels. On the other land, project ideas also may pop  up to exploit promising opportunities which are either directly observed in different fields or are recommended by research studies, workshops, seminars, reports etc. Anyhow, most of the projects may be identified in relation to 

2.8. Project and Project Proposal : -

  •  Interlink

A proposal is the guiding document of a project. Virtually, success of a project is largely determined by its project proposal document. In other words, a well-designed project proposal may leave no room for confusion and convulsions while undertaking and performing project activities. So there is a close interlink between the future goings-on of a project and its proposal document.

  • Uniqueness

Depending upon the type, scale, and nature of projects each and every project will have its own uniqueness from different dimensions. So it is not possible to provide a standard format for improving the project proposal writing  skills equally applicable for all types and natures of projects. We have to develop our individual project proposal  writing skills by ourselves.

2.7. Reasons for Top-Down Project Failures : -

Usually, projects designed under top-down approach are experienced to face failure from a number of reasons. Some of the key reasons  for their failures are as follows :

Ambiguous project objectives set on the basis of insufficient information and unreliable data while planning the project and designing its M &E system;

Conflicts in set objectives of different projects that are working to achieve the common goal of a program-me;

Absence of field-based experienced and/or qualified personnel to design and carry out projects;

Lack of proper communication between project planning (central) and project implementing (local) agencies;

corruption at higher levels  in the name of  local level development;

No timely release of budget from the cent-re;

2.6. Project Approach in Planning : -

It has been already said above that a plan is a representation of vision and projects are the real action units undertaken in order to achieve the goal envisioned in the plan. Hence a plan vision may be based either on top-down or bottom-up approach.
The practice of formulating plan, program-mes and projects at central level and pushed down to the field level for its implementation is known as top-down approach. Here the requirements and interest of local people while selecting and implementing projects are not taken into consideration, in general. Local people, in such case become just onlookers rather than the actors in doing development works.

2.5. Project Characteristics in Common : -

Despite the different types and natures of projects we observe in different sectors and in different levels, all of those necessarily reflect a set of common characteristics.

Common Characteristics of all Projects

each and every project needs to be guided to achieve an objective or a set of objectives.
every project requires certain investment of resources  (money, material, time, information or technology, manpower,etc.)
Every project needs space be it physical, aerial, aesthetic, political, cultural etc
all projects need to undergo a system of inputs- process - outputs.
every project will have its own phase-based cycle. In other words, every project starts from its identification and ends up with evaluation. Depending upon the type and scale of a project, phases of project cycle may vary from project to project.

Project Cycle Phase : An Example

Project A
Phase I Identification
Phase II Formulation
Phase III Implementation M & E

Project B
Phase I Identification
Phase II Formulation
Phase III Appraisal
Phase IV Implementation M & E

In the above project cycle example, there are only three phases in project ''A'' whereas there are four phases in project ''B''. In other cases there may be many more phases as well. All this largely depends upon the type and nature of a project. However, in general context, we can say that every project will have invariably three phases and they are:

  • Pre-project  implementation phase (including all activities starting from project identification to project appraisal);
  • Project implementation phase (including monitoring and on-going evaluation; and
  • Post-project implementation phase (conducting impact evaluation).

Thursday, September 8, 2011

2.4. Type and Nature of Projects : -

In broad, for a simple understanding, categorization of different types and natures of projects can be done on the following basis. However, it should not be taken as a comprehensive or complete classification.

Classification of Projects

Type and Nature of Projects

non-industrial or industrial
private or public
goods producing or service providing
profit or non-profit oriented
small, medium, large (depends on definition)


2.3. Project : -

Projects are the specific schemes or action units designated for the investment of given resources and skills with an aim of attaining some predetermined objective/s. Projects involve real actions as per the direction of program-me outlines. So, a program-me may consist of several projects.
In other words, projects are the specific action units within the framework of a program-me and program-mes are the integrated blocks of development plan. Therefore, proper formulation of sector-specific plan, program-me and project necessarily indicate the pace and direction of development process of any community, district, and thereby of an economy. Projects remain themselves at the bottom level of any plan.

Interrelationship between Plan, Program-me & Project 


Development or Sectoral Plans 
  Broad Decisions

 Action Outlines

Action Execution

    There may be several types and natures of projects functioning in any community or country. All of  such projects are tied up, in one or another way, to their respective program-mes. Likewise, there may be several program-mes within a plan designed to fit into the set goal of a plan.

    2.2. Programme : -

    A program-me is the extensive and consistent set of action units stating the needs of interrelated activities to achieve the plan's objectives and goal. There could be several program-mes within a plan or a development plan.

    In fact, the success of a PLAN necessarily depends upon the accuracy and clarity shown in its program formulation followed by clear action outlines on one hand and the establishment of inter-sectoral and inter-organizational sound coordination and cooperation mechanisms, on the other.

    2. Project Proposal : Theoretical Background

    2.1. Plan : -

      A plan is an image, map, or vision to represent the forms and/or features of desired situation(s). "It is a means to build a constituency for change. It is also evidence of an explicit allocation of resources to the task- and the means to mobilize additional, external resources" (UNDP, 2000). It is equally applicable in terms of understanding the 'concept of plan' be it in community or national level context.

      Of course, a plan prepared to develop a certain community is understood as Community Development Plan whereas a plan prepared to develop a district or region is called the District Development Plan or the Regional Development Plan. On the other hand, depending upon different sectors (agriculture, education, forestry, health and so on) there may be different sector-specific plans and we call each of them ' Sectoral Development Plan'. And finally, we have the National Development Plan, which should be understood as an integration of all levels, and sector-based development plans.

      In a plan document, we can find only the level or sector-specific broad decisions indicating what and how much is to be achieved with the investment of given resources ( finance, human, time, technology etc.).

      A plan itself is static. In other words, a plan representing only an imagination or vision will have no meaning unless it is put into operation to achieve its set objective/s.

      Planning, on the other hand, is a process to formulate a plan and also an action drive to put the plan into operation in order to produce the targeted results. It involves a pre-consideration of resource commitment ( finance, human, time, technology etc.) required for the implementation of plan. It is dynamic.

      There is a mutual dependence between a plan's vision and the materialization of its goal. So, much of the success of a plan depends upon the following circumstances.

      • How clearly and realistically the planners formulate the plan?
      • How far the plan implementing agencies coincide with the vision of planners?
      • How far the programmes and projects approved to execute are in line with the plan objective/s?

      Things to Remember - If the above said considerations do not follow the same direction, it will be something like some valuable musical instruments but played without coordination.

      Friday, August 19, 2011

      1. Project Proposal : Sample Format

      Sample Format

      How to Write a Project Proposal

      A Project Proposal on Human Rights & World Peace

      1.1.  Background:-

        The institute named " Human Rights & World Peace" has been established with the intention of mobilizing project proposal for eliminating anarchism and guaranteeing human rights in the universal level according to the Institution Registration Act 2034. Specially, it has been activating as a non-profitable social organization. The central office of this institute is located at Putalisadak, KT M, Nepal. Its branch office is also situated at Pulchowk, Lalitpur. It has aimed to open branch offices all over the world later.

        1.2. Context and Rationale : -

        The concept of this institute has been adopted in context of preserving human rights and eliminating terrorist activities in the universal level. especially, the rationale of establishing this institute is to arouse public awareness for the actual implementation of human rights and maintain tranquility.

        1.3. Planning Process : -

        This institute will go forward on the basis of the following planning processes:-

        To assemble grant and cooperation in national and international level for the great mission of universal tranquility.

        To mobilize people's participation all over the world so as to guarantee human rights in true sense.

        1.4. Goal : -

        The main goal of this institute is as follows:-

        To minimize terrorism universally.

        To run an important campaign throughout the world for the actual implementation of human right and peace.

        1.5. Objectives : -

        The major objectives of this institute are the following:-

        To manipulate various informative seminars for the guarantee of human rights universally.

        To conduct prominent programs based on public awareness in every sector as a perpetual and responsible self- governing agency for the universal tranquility.

        To formulate innovative and scientific procedures for systematizing the peace and human rights in the universal level.

        To remain selflessly active in the direction to guarantee universal declaration of peace and human rights in true sense.

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        Thursday, August 18, 2011

        1.6. Strategy : -

         The major strategies of this institute are as follows:-

        To establish reliable contact with social organizations of native and foreign lands with common target for guaranteeing actual universal peace.

        To encourage persons and organizations in order to abolish universal terrorism.

        To initiate different groups for world peace and progress. 

        1.7. Major Activities : -

        On the basis of above-mentioned strategies, this institute will do the following major activities:-

        To give special priority for the development and conservation of  those factors as universal peace and human rights are complementary with each other.

        To cause to support in the development of world peace, relationship and brotherhood by issuing commitment against the discriminatory behavior and deprivation of human rights to be happened in any part of the world.

        To run the effective programs based on the innovative thinking for the sustainable development of universal human rights and tranquility.

        To organize trainings, workshops and orientated classes for this great campaign.

        Wednesday, August 17, 2011

        1.8. Co-ordination : -

          This institute will formulate and apply effective schemes all over the world for this deep work by coordinating and cooperating with N Gos, activated in national and international sector. Furthermore, it will also go forward on the basis of the coordination of various native and foreign social organizations, working in the field of social service. Thus, it has aimed to raise coordination with diverse groups in universal level for making this project successful.

          1.10. Anticipated Results : -

          This institute will anticipate the following results from the actual implementation of this project:-

          Minimization of terrorism in the world.

          Guaranteeing human rights universally.

          Maintaining peace and order over-ally.

          Raising the feeling of universal unity and brotherhood.

          For achieving above-mentioned expected results, this institute will go forward in the direction of its terms and references by considering various probable risks and potential dangers like heavy rain, storm, flood and landslide as natural calamities.

          Along with this, it will anticipate high level of co-operation and favor from every sector for the successful implementation of this challenging project.

          1.11. Program Management : -

          Indeed, skilled human power is needed for the successful implementation of any project. For this purpose, this institute needs competent personalities. So, the structure of program management will be as follows:-

          Chief Executive Director

          Assistant Director


          Assistant Manager

          Assistant Administrative Officer

          Account Officer

          Office Assistant

          Field Officer

          Assistant Field Officer



          1.12. Reporting : -

          This institute will submit the report for the working progress of project. For this purpose, it will do the following tasks:-

          To supervise its branch offices, activated all over the world

          To observe their regular activities.

          To evaluate the challenges, created in course of working.

          To revise positive and negative aspects of working.

          Along with this, on the basis of monthly report of the progress details of the project, this institute will prepare annual report as final report. For preparing a good report, it will mobilize human resources all over the world.
          As far as positive and negative impacts are concerned, it will give necessary instruction to various groups in order to make the best report. In this way, this institute will prepare an effective report by making deep supervision of the project.

          Tuesday, August 16, 2011

          1.14. Conclusion and Evaluation : -

          While making deep evaluation of this institutional project, it seems completely effective and contextual. However, it is necessary to emphasize on systematic implementation of this project. It will be centered in those people and groups, who are deprived of human rights and victimized by the terrorism. As this project is a mixture of the guarantee of human rights and universal peace and order, it is believed to be entirely successful. So, this project will be proved to be beneficial for raising universal unity, brotherhood and implementing the principle of human rights in forth-coming days.